Biomass power plants are similar to conventional thermal power plants, only using biomass as fuel.
How is the process of generating electricity in a biomass power plant?
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1) The biomass will be ground to a fine powder. (to increase combustion efficiency) and then lead to the silo to feed fuel into the combustion chamber.
2) The fuel is burned, the heat energy obtained is used to boil water. The resulting steam is sent to turn turbines. of the generator
3) The hot steam that has already turned the turbine will be cooled by a condensation process to form water droplets which will be collected And sent by water pump to fill the boiler to continue to circulate into steam
4) Cooling water that acts to help the steam condense into water droplets. will have a higher temperature due to the transfer of heat from steam will be cooled by using a cooling tower Discharges the heat from the cooling water into the air. The coolant temperature has been reduced. will be reused again. This type of cooling water system is a closed circuit system.
biomass power plant Is a power plant that uses fuels that come from living organisms such as wood chips, garbage, sewage, agricultural waste materials, firewood, rice husks, biogas, etc. For example
– The sugar factory uses bagasse obtained from sugar cane crushing as fuel to generate electricity.
– large mill that uses rice husks as fuel to generate electricity
– Paper mills use scrap wood and bark. Black rubber oil as fuel to generate electricity
– Big animal farms Bring animal manure to ferment to get biogas. Then bring that biogas to use in generating electricity.
There are many biomass power plants in Thailand such as the biomass power plants. of Double A Company Prachinburi Province biomass power plant A.T. Biopower Phichit Province biomass power plant Khon Kaen Province, etc.
Advantages of biomass power plants
1) Biomass, if not used as fuel, is waste that has no economic value. Or if the biomass is allowed to decompose naturally. Methane is produced, which is considered a greenhouse gas and about 20 times more dangerous than carbon dioxide.
2) Reduces the burden of disposal e.g. to landfills and incineration, etc.
3) Contributing to local job creation The community has more income. It is estimated that the use of local biomass for cash flow in the system has increased by 7 times and the national income has increased. That is, when farmers earn more income from biomass. This money will be used for local revolving expenses such as wages for collecting and collecting biomass. These people will use the money to spend on another level. goes on like this
4) Save foreign currency because there is no need to import fuel from abroad such as fuel oil and coal, etc.
Impact of biomass power plants
1) Air Pollution Biomass power plants generate small dust particles. produces nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide gas including carbon dioxide and many other toxins, which are harmful to the lungs of residents in the community causing people in the area near the power plant to become more ill with respiratory diseases
2) Noise pollution According to the study, biomass power plants produce noise of 53 – 56 decibels during the time of power generation. There is also noise from the construction process that disturbs people’s daily life throughout the day. and at night until people in the community had to come out against
3) Water pollution and competition for water resources Biomass power plants are often located in agricultural areas where people need water for agriculture. But power plants also use water to generate electricity. which requires about 120 cubic meters of water per day per 1 megawatt of electricity generation, but the electricity generation
4) Dangers in everyday life: Biomass power plants in many provinces such as Chiang Rai are located near schools and people’s residences. To generate electricity, a large number of trucks are needed to transport raw materials. This may cause accidents to people in the community for the reasons mentioned above. People in the area inevitably had to protest against the biomass power plant in the area.
The future of biomass power plants
From all of the above, it can be concluded that the trend of using biomass energy still has a bright future. And will be used for more power plants. to replace fossil energy which must be imported And day by day, fossil energy will become more and more expensive. Rare and eventually sold out In addition, because biomass has advantages in terms of the environment. It does not increase the net amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus causing the greenhouse effect. as well as having a low sulfur content There are many production sources in the country. It can be renewed throughout the year. However, the problem from using biomass energy is still enough to be seen, that is
The cost of system construction is still high. Compared to electricity from fossil fuels The amount of biomass is uncertain even though it is available throughout the year. But it depends on the weather conditions. Sometimes even though there are many but collected from many places to feed the power plant thus increasing the cost of transporting biomass as well Therefore, the current cost per unit of electricity generation is still higher than electricity from fossil fuels.
The relevant government agencies researched and developed technology to produce electricity from biomass fuel In order to create more biomass power plants in the future, it is considered an alternative way of using future energy in a form. Because overall It is considered that biomass is an alternative fuel that has a long future.
Potential of biomass fuel production in Thailand
Biomass energy is a very high potential energy source for Thailand. Because we are an agricultural country, there are a lot of agricultural wastes such as rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, fiber, and palm bunches, etc. Therefore, biomass energy is a by-product that has a high value compared to the input raw material value. As the transformation of biomass energy is a by-product that has The value is high compared to the input raw material value. It is like transforming the waste into the good. At present, the use of biomass fuel is not much compared to the amount of biomass fuel available. The government therefore encourages biomass power plants scattered throughout the country.
biomass fuel with environmental impact
Biomass fuel causes the following environmental impacts:
1) causing air pollution Because there will be small dust scattered everywhere. (If the dust removal system is not of good enough quality) causes people in the vicinity of the biomass power plant to suffer from respiratory disease.
2) produce nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide gas including carbon monoxide gas which is a greenhouse gas
3) Biomass power plants require large amounts of water to dissipate heat. This may cause the problem of water shortage in the community. and create an impact on agriculture in the area
4) People around the power plant may be annoyed by the bad smell. dust that pollutes the house and dirty appliances
5) People near the power plant are stressed. from feeling insecure and worried about the impact on their own and family health
Some types of biomass, in addition to being used as fuel directly. We can also use biomass to convert it into gas, alcohol and biodiesel.
Biomass Gasification Power Plant
gasification technology (Gasification) is a technology for producing synthetic fuel gas. There is a principle like making charcoal. by burning raw materials or biomass in a confined climate or controlling the air volume The raw materials will change into charcoal and gas and the gas can be used as fuel, so gasifier is the process of converting solid fuels into gaseous fuels. and converting the obtained fuel gas into electrical energy
Gasification biomass power plants are more efficient in generating electricity than biomass incineration plants. Gasification power plants consume 1 kg of fuel per 1 kW of electricity generation, while biomass power plants for boiling water consume 1.5 kg of fuel per 1 kW of electricity generation. Gasification plants emit less gas than conventional biomass power plants.
Biomass gasification power plants in Thailand are biomass power plants in Trang province, biomass power plants Roi Et Province